Subscribe to this paid review for more regulated articles on the subject In March 2018, the United States adopted measures to increase tariffs on a number of imported steel and aluminum products, stating that the measures are justified for their domestic safety concerns. Several WTO members, including the European Union, India, Russia, Turkey and China, have argued that the US measures are contrary to WTO safeguards rules and have taken retaliatory measures by invoking Article 12.5 of the safeguard agreement. The United States argues that its measures are not safeguards under WTO rules and that, therefore, the retaliatory measures provided for in the safeguards agreement are not justified. This article examines relevant cases and examines whether U.S. measures are safeguards under the safeguard agreement and whether retaliatory measures are also justified under the safeguard agreement. The article also discusses the need for regulatory reform to address issues related to unilateral trade measures and retaliatory measures. (c) This agreement does not apply to measures requested, taken or maintained by a member in accordance with the provisions of the 1994 GATT, unlike Article XIX and the multilateral trade agreements of Schedule 1A which are not this agreement, nor on the basis of protocols, agreements or agreements concluded under the 1994 GATT. 2. (a) In cases where a quota is distributed among the supplier countries, the member applying the restrictions may seek agreement on the allocation of quota shares with all other members who have a considerable interest in delivering the product concerned. In cases where this method is not reasonably feasible, the member concerned shares members who have a core interest in providing the shares of the product on the basis of the shares of the product delivered by those members during a prior representative period of the total volume or total value of imports, taking into account all the particular factors that have or could affect the product`s trade. 2.
In the absence of agreement in the Article 12 consultations, paragraph 3, within 30 days, the exporting members concerned are exempt, no later than 90 days after the application of the measure, from suspending the suspension at the end of a period of thirty days from the date on which the Council for Trade in Goods received a written notification of the suspension. , the application, under the 1994 GATT, of concessions or other commitments essentially equivalent to the trade of the member applying the safeguard measure which the Council for Trade in Goods does not disapprove of the suspension of this measure. b) In addition, a member cannot seek, take or maintain voluntary export restrictions, orderly marketing agreements or similar measures on the export or import side. (3), (4) These include measures taken by a single member and measures within the framework of agreements, agreements and agreements reached by two or more members. Any such measure, in effect on the date of the WTO agreement, is brought into compliance with this agreement or expires in accordance with paragraph 2. Recognising further that, to this end, a comprehensive agreement applies to all members and is based on the fundamental principles of the 1994 GATT; (f) to receive and review all notifications under this agreement and, if necessary, to report to the Council for Trade in Goods; this agreement establishes rules for the application of safeguard measures, i.e. the measures provided for in Article XIX of the 1994 GATT. Taking into account the overall objective of members to improve and strengthen the international trading system based on the 1994 GATT; 1.